MLA Updates: What’s New

MLA has recently released the new 8th Edition of the MLA Handbook, which includes several updates. Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) explains the changes in the following article:

MLA Eighth Edition: What’s New and Different

[Contributors:Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Purdue OWL Staff]

In April 2016, MLA replaced its seventh edition resources with a new eighth edition. This updated version reflects the ways in which digital publication has changed how writers and researchers document sources. Therefore, the new edition includes significant shifts in the approach to source documentation in academic writing. While earlier editions emphasized the importance of following specific guidelines for formatting, the eighth edition focuses on the practice and process of scholarly documentation. The logic here is basic: a style guide should offer a method that is widely applicable. Rather than insisting that writers follow strict citation formulas, this handbook outlines the principles of MLA documentation and explains how writers can use them in many different situations.

For this reason, the new edition focuses on the writer’s strategy and individual decisions. Not all scholarly prose is the same, and every writer should evaluate her/his readers and determine how to best engage them. The writer’s goal should be to provide a document and list of sources that is easy for readers to use, so that the reading experience is informative and enjoyable.

Like earlier editions, this handbook includes information on evaluating sources, avoiding plagiarism, using quotations, constructing abbreviations, and other topics important to the scholarly writer. But what is different about the eighth edition is that it recommends a universal set of guidelines that writers can apply to any source, in any field. In the past, writers would create an entry in a works cited list by looking at MLA’s instructions for how to cite a specific type of source. For example, if you needed to cite a film, you would consult the handbook to see the proper format for documenting film. In this new edition, MLA explains that this method is no longer practical, since types of sources are sometimes undefinable, or accessible in more than one way (for instance, a YouTube clip from a film is not the same as the original film itself). Therefore, the eighth edition offers a new model for entries in a works cited list, so that rather than consulting the handbook for the proper way to document a specific type of source, the writer creates entries by consulting MLA’s list of core elements and compiling them in the recommended order.

Core elements are those basic pieces of information that should be common to all sources, from books to articles, from lectures to tweets. The MLA core elements are as follows:

Author Number
Title of source Publisher
Title of container Publication date
Other contributors Location
Version

If you have included these elements and assembled them in a way that makes sense to your readers, then your works cited entries will be consistent and thorough.

Look for updates to OWLs resources and more detailed information about changes to MLA guidelines coming soon.

Examples

Since the eighth edition focuses on the principles of documenting sources, rather than on strict adherence to a particular format for each source, citations in this new edition vary only slightly from the old ways. When comparing works cited entries in the new eighth edition with the former seventh edition, see that differences in citation style are minimal; punctuation is streamlined, volume and issue numbers are identified as such, and there is no excess information such as city of publication or media type.

Note the differences in citing a print book with one author:

Eighth edition (the new way):

Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford UP, 2011.

In this version, only the most essential information is included (author’s name, book title, publisher, and date). Note that the city of publication is not needed, and the medium of publication is eliminated.

Seventh edition (the old way):

Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2011. Print.

This version includes the city of publication (Oxford) and the medium (print), which the new eighth edition does not require.

The differences in citing an article from a scholarly journal:

Eighth edition:

Kincaid, Jamaica. “In History.” Callaloo, vol. 24, no. 2, Spring 2001, pp. 620-26.

This version identifies the volume (24), the number (2), and the page numbers (620-26) of the scholarly journal, rather than leaving those numbers without clear explanation. This helps readers best make sense of your citation and allows them to locate your source without getting bogged down with extra information or references that can be difficult to decipher. Also note that punctuation is simple; only commas separate the journal title, volume, number, date, and page numbers.

Seventh edition:

Kinkaid, Jamaica. “In History.” Callaloo 24.2 (Spring 2001): 620-26. Web.

This version includes the volume and number (24.2), and page numbers (620-26) of the journal, but does not explain those references. The seventh edition emphasized following a strict punctuation formula, such as parentheses around the date and the colon, while the new eighth edition focuses on providing this information in a more streamlined manner by using only commas to separate each component.

Takeaways

If you are already familiar with traditional MLA citation methods, continue to use them in a more simplified form. Since the eighth edition emphasizes the writer’s freedom to create references based on the expectations of the audience, consider what your readers need to know if they want to find your source.

  • Think of MLA style principles as flexible guides, rather than rules. Part of your responsibility as a writer is to evaluate your readers and decide what your particular audience needs to know about your sources.
  • Your goal is to inform, persuade, and otherwise connect with your audience; error-free writing, along with trustworthy documentation, allows readers to focus on your ideas.
  • In-text citations should look consistent throughout your paper. The principles behind in-text citations have changed very little from the seventh to the eighth editions.
  • List of works cited/works consulted needs to include basic core information, such as author’s name, title of source, publication date, and other information, depending on the type of source. Each entry should be uniform and simple, but should give enough information so that your readers can locate your sources.
  • These updated MLA guidelines are based on a simple theory: once you know the basic principles of style and citation, you can apply that knowledge widely, and generate useful documentation for any type of publication, in any field.

 

For more information on MLA changes, visit https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/22
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Research Tools: Google Scholar

(This article originally appeared as “The Research Paper” Sept. 2012)

Getting Started with Research

Your instructor has assigned a research paper which will require ten credible sources. You begin your search where everyone does – online. You Google your search term, “Lower Drinking Age,” to find over five million hits. You make it more specific: “Lower Drinking Age to 18,” and get 4 million hits. You pull out your assignment guidelines for some direction, and notice it states, “Ten credible sources, only 3 of which can be websites.”

You’re doomed.

You are at home or work and can’t get to the library. How can you ever find enough sources for your paper if you are not allowed to use all websites? And what does “credible” mean anyway?

Sound familiar?

Finding reliable sources is the single most time-consuming task of writing a research paper. It takes time and patience to locate effective sources that support your argument. So where to start?

Google Scholar

In the initial stages of gathering research, the internet can be a useful tool if used wisely. As you are just beginning to gather information, you want to cast a wide net to understand all the angles of your topic. One great online site to begin is Google Scholar.

Google Scholar can give you access to research across a wide range of disciplines. You’ll find all types of print and web sources: books, journal articles, court documents, dissertations, and even university websites, which are generally the most credible type of web-based source (should always be “edu”).

Capture

 

 

 

 
If you search “Lower Drinking Age,” you’ll see a sidebar on the left that offers you a way to narrow the results by type, year, and relevance. On the right is a “My Citations,” link where you can track a researcher’s work (you have to have a Google account for this). The advantage of this tool is if you find a particular researcher who is publishing work in your topic of interest, you can find other relevant publications by the same author.

Once you find some intriguing articles, you can click on the link to read the abstract (description of the article). If you scan over to the right of the link, you may see links to the printed version in a PDF file with the full text. At the bottom of the annotated link, you’ll see a horizontal list of further help, including “Cited,” which shows many times the article has been cited; html, if this type of version is offered, other related articles (which is a good info to have for further research; other versions of the article (which may include more current research), and other types of information related to the article.

Advanced Search
Advanced Search

 

If you are on a campus computer, you may also see a link under the link that says, “find at MCC,” (or your local college or university). This means your campus will have that source in one of its libraries or have access to it.

 

 

Take some time in this stage to tweak your search terms and scan the research to find the perfect support for your paper. Take careful notes of the articles and authors you might to use, or if you are able, print out the full link so you’ll have it when you go back to read the full text later. Slowing down and taking these steps will save you time later.

 

 

 

The Case of Capitalization

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Capitalization can be confounding to beginning writers. Some words are easy to remember, like proper names and places. But what about ages and time periods? Regions and geographical areas? And diseases – are all diseases capitalized, or just some, and what’s the difference?

The answer to some of these questions is it depends on the documentation style you are using. For our purposes here, we’ll refer to MLA style unless otherwise noted.

Titles in Names

When a proper name is preceded with a title, like judge or professor, the titles will be capitalized.

  • I took British Literature from Professor Kennedy.
  • We were married at the courthouse by Judge Baker.
  • Boys Town was started by Father Flanagan.

However, do not capitalize titles when they stand alone.

  • When I grow up, I hope to be a professor.
  • My uncle is a judge.

When referencing family names, only capitalize the relationship when they are part of the person’s title.

  • Her Aunt Cindy is a lawyer in New York.
  • Her aunt is an expert quilter.
  • My mother has a huge record collection.

 Time Periods

If the time period is referred to by a specific name, it is capitalized.

  • the Middle Ages
  • Paleozoic Era
  • the Dark Ages
  • Age of Enlightenment

When used as a descriptive, no capitalization is necessary.

  • The antebellum period
  • classical Greece
  • ancient Egypt

Locations

North, South, East, and West are capitalized when indicating geographical regions. Regions such as the Mid Atlantic, Silicon Valley, and Midwest are capitalized. Usually if “the” can go in front of the word, it is capitalized.

  • American West
  • Atlantic
  • The Northeast
  • The South

North, south, northwest, etc. are not capitalized when indicating a direction or used as an adjective.

  • The western United States
  • eastern Europe
  • southern France
  • She drove south through Atlanta.

Diseases

Diseases named after regions and people are capitalized. Ebola and West Nile are capitalized, as both are named from the regions where they originated (Ebola is a river in Zaire, and West Nile is a region in Uganda). Alzheimer’s disease, Asperger’s syndrome, and Down’s syndrome are named after the doctors who discovered the diseases. However, there are differences between style guides as to whether they are possessive. If in doubt, follow the style used in your field of study or your textbook.

Most disease names are not capitalized, as the names are derived from some hallmark of the condition, according to Grammar Girl. Diabetes, autism, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis would not be capitalized.

Final Thoughts

This is only the tip of the capitalization iceberg. Always refer to the style guide in your specific field, as many vary on their formatting. For instance, according to the Grammar Girl, the directional terms that describe people differ, depending on the style book. Associated Press, used for magazines and newspapers, prefers “Southerner,” whereas Chicago Manual of Style prefers “southerner.”

It’s most important to stay consistent, regardless of the style you use.

For more help with capitalization questions, visit The Grammar Book or Grammar Girl.

Introduction to MLA

book

MLA stands for Modern Language Association. MLA citation style is generally used in the humanities and liberal arts fields. MLA style, according to MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, ”represents a consensus among teachers, scholars, and librarians in the fields of language and literature on the conventions for documenting research, and those conventions will help you organize your research paper coherently” (xiii).

Did you notice that at the end of the previous quote, some roman numerals were inside parenthesis before the period? This is referred to as an in-text citation. This refers to the page in the text where you can find the quote. In this case, the quote is from the introduction, and often roman numerals are used in intros.

A Little History

According to the editors of the MLA Handbook, MLA published a style sheet in 1951, and since then has been refining the style to help academics and researchers compose their writings and research (xiv). (Note that even though the previous sentence is not a direct quote, but paraphrased, it still includes a parenthetical citation. Credit must be given to ALL information taken from any source, or the writer could be accused of plagiarism.)

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As you compose your research paper, you’ll be asked to include outside sources on your topic. This research might take the form of print sources, such as books, journals, newspapers, or magazines. You may also want to utilize online or web sources, such as an organization’s website, an online magazine or newspaper, or even Wikipedia. If you are not sure what types of research are permitted, ask your instructor.

Types of Sources

sources

A research paper will have two types of sources – primary and secondary sources. Primary sources are original information from an author who has experienced or witnessed what he or she is writing about. They might include original documents or artifacts.

Secondary sources usually analyze and interpret primary sources.  Secondary sources are not original, and are often several steps removed from the event. A journal article that analyzes someone else’s research is an example of a secondary source. Learning how to locate, analyze, and integrate secondary sources into your writing is one of the most important skills you will learn as you write your research paper. You will need to not only learn how to assess other’s research, but you also must articulate your own ideas clearly.

In-text Citations

In MLA, any information you take, whether directly quoted or paraphrased, must be cited in the text of your paper immediately after the information in what is known as a parenthetical citation. What goes in this parenthetical citation depends upon the type of source information used. This parenthetical citation must coincide with the Works Cited page, which is the reference page at the end of your essay. MLA uses what is known as the “author-page” citation, which means you’ll include the author’s last name and the page number where the information came from. If you mention the author in the text, you will omit it from the parenthetical reference.

Example: Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as “symbol-using animals” (3).

Since the author’s name is mentioned in the text, only the page number is given.

Example:

Human beings have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3).

In this example, the author’s name is given in the citation, as it is not mentioned in the text.

Many other sources, though, may not list an author, and most web-based sources list no page number. Refer to the current  MLA Handbook or Purdue Owl for information on different types of citations when lacking an author, page number, or both.

Works Cited

The works cited page is the reference page to your paper. It will alphabetically list every source used in your paper (both primary and secondary), whether you have directly quoted, paraphrased, or summarized. The works cited pages gives publication information on source material so that a reader, if interested, can easily locate the entire source.

All items on the works cited page should correspond with all in-text citations in the paper. This means that each entry should match the way you have cited it in the text of your essay. For example, if the Works Cited has an entry with the last name of “Adams,” the paper should have either an attributive tag to Adams, or Adams should be in the parenthetical citation, with a page number if a print source (online sources often do not have page numbers).

MLA requires specific formatting, so always refer to your handbook or visit Purdue Owl to check your entries.

Never Guess

Learning how to locate, analyze, and integrate research into your compositions can be time-consuming and often confusing. You should never guess how to cite a source. Refer to the MLA Handbook or visit Purdue Owl online for any questions you may have on in-text citations or your works cited page.

 

 

Top Ten Tips for Writing Research Papers

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Over the course of their careers, English instructors read enough student research papers to circle the circumference of the globe three times over. I just made that figure up, but I’ll bet it’s not far off. In the course of reading this many research papers, it’s typical to find the same weaknesses repeated in essay after essay. After a while, instructors have their own pet peeve list. So below we’ve compiled our own top ten list of the most common writing problems with research papers.

1.         Apologizing for your opinions. Prefacing a statement with the phases, “I believe,” or “I think,” only serves to weaken your position. It’s akin to an apology for your opinion. Unless you are quoting or paraphrasing, it’s a given you “believe” or “think” something. Simply taking out those phrases will immediately give your writing more power.

2.         Inflated phrases. When writing a research paper, students often think they have to take on a voice of authority, and they believe they need to use wordy constructions to sound “academic,” when all it does is sound pretentious. Wordy, inflated phrases are also confusing to read. Use your own voice and keep the writing tight.

3.         Failure to attribute ideas to sources. Often in research papers, it’s obvious that ideas or opinions are not the author’s, but are not cited to an outside source. Students paraphrase others’ ideas into their own words, but often fail to cite. This creates the impression that the information is coming from the writer, when in fact, it’s a source’s idea or opinion. Give them credit.

4.         Signposting. Signposting is putting up directional signs in your writing to tell the audience what you just said or what you will say. This might be required in speech class, but it’s not necessary in written papers. Don’t tell your audience what you previously said or what you will say; just say it.

5.         Stuck in quotes. When incorporating sources, research must be integrated into your own writing smoothly, introduced completely, and synthesized fully. Taking outside research and sticking a quote in where you think it sounds good is a sure sign you either don’t understand the research, are a lazy writer, or both.

6.         Not taking citation style seriously. Many students who have never written a research paper and are unfamiliar with MLA or APA citation requirements often believe the rules concerning in-text citation, works cited, or reference pages are a   low priority and skimp on this time-consuming task. However, most instructors who assign research papers expect students to follow these rules and will often deduct a large number of points for failure to follow the guidelines. Some instructors will fail an otherwise strong paper for failure to master this important task. Take it seriously.

7.         Lack of organization and focus. Don’t put socks in your underwear drawer. If your topic is rail transportation, and your argument is the US should fund public rails, don’t go into the fun you had riding the Euro-rail on your vacation. It’s  irrelevant to your argument. Keep the points you want to make together; avoid jumping back and forth between reasons. Organize your argument like a chest of drawers – or a rail car – one drawer, or railcar, after another.

8.         Lack of conclusion. One of the most common responses I have given to student papers is, “Ends abruptly.” Often students concentrate so intensely on the body of a research paper that they overlook the importance of a strong conclusion.

9.         Failure to follow assignment guidelines. The lowest grades I have ever given a student research paper are to those who obviously have not even read the assignment directions. If you are asked to include eight sources, and you give        two, that’s not meeting the requirements. If you write an informational essay when you are assigned an argument paper, that’s not following the guidelines. If  in doubt, ask your instructor.

10.       Lack of careful proofreading. Relying on spell-check is not going to help you find word usage errors, one of the most common errors in academic papers. It’s also difficult to find everything in one read-through. After you have read your essay through at least once to check for good paragraph structure, focus and flow, do a final edit for punctuation and grammar only.

Teachers: What have I left out? Share your top ten list.

Students: What are your pet peeves? Lack of clear assignment guidelines? Lack of written assignment? Lack of clear feedback?

 

The Research Paper: Beginning Your Search for Research

research-studies_000When assigned a research paper, many students become anxious, as they may be unfamiliar with research basics. Even though your instructor may have given you guidelines to follow, it’s daunting to know where to begin. With the tremendous amount of online resources now available, a student can get lost for days scrolling through information and get bogged down to the point of drowning in TMI: too much information!

So where to begin?

1.    First, consider your topic. Is it a current issue? Is it a more scientific topic? What field of interest is it? A current issue, say, the debate on the college bowl system, isn’t going to be found in peer-reviewed journals. A current issue will be written about in newspapers or magazines, and most likely on some websites. Your instructor may have strict guidelines that prohibit the use of these types of sources.

If you’ve picked a topic based more in the sciences, for instance, genetically modified food or organ transplantation, you’ll probably find research on these topics in peer-reviewed or academic journals, as well as books and respected websites. Current social or ethical topics, like cyberbullying or wind farms, would most likely be found in newspapers or magazines, as they are current issues, but might also be found in academic journals as well and even books.

Before you get too far into the research process, make certain your topic will work for the type of research your assignment requires. If peer-reviewed or academic research is required, debating the merits of a BCS playoff system might not work.

2.    Think quality over quantity. If your assignment requires you to cite 8 sources, citing 16 isn’t going to double your chances of a better grade. Using too many sources may send up a red flag that you’ve relied too heavily on source material and not your own ideas. Quality sources are books, peer-reviewed journals, scholarly articles, most library databases, and some websites. I guide my students to only utilize “.edu” or “.gov,” as even some “.org” websites can be misrepresentative. Wikipedia is hit and miss. Most instructors oppose its use, though some permit limited use for only a bit of historical information. And please, oh please, avoid using a dictionary or encyclopedia definition as a source.

3.    The best way to locate quality research comes from other quality research. If you’ve found one good source, look at that source’s citation page at the end. Who has your source referenced? These are often the best sources for your topic. Still having a love affair with Wikipedia? You might not be able to use Wiki in your paper, but it’s often not a bad starting point to find other research that you can use. Search your topic, then scroll down to Wikipedia’s references. They are often quite long. I searched “Wind Farm” in Wikipedia and 111 sources came up. They also have a “Further Reading” list at the bottom of most pages.

4.    When searching library databases such as EBSCO or ERIC, I often see students repeatedly use the same keyword in different databases and getting the same poor result. Database searches are all about keywords, and your best results come from careful consideration of search terms. Brainstorm a list of possible keywords, either general topics or titles, even synonyms will bring up different results. You might also consult the Library of Congress Subject Headings, which contain the keywords that librarians use when they classify materials. A search of “wind farm” brought up “wind power plants,” and “wind power parks.” If in doubt, ask your librarian. That’s what they’re there for.

5.    As you spend some time sifting through research, it’s important to keep careful records. You’ll save a lot of valuable time if you stay organized and maintain careful records so you don’t have to go back and try to find where all your sources came from. Keep research note cards, photocopy materials, or keep a detailed research journal.

Start early and schedule ample time for collecting research. This is often the most time consuming part of the essay process, but it’s also the most crucial. You can’t write a research paper without research. It’s also important to understand the research and show that you’ve developed insights into the problem or debate. You’re not just compiling data to dump in between your own paragraphs. You must synthesize the research and link this new information to what you already know.

 

 

I Cite: Basic In-Text Citations

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When writing a research paper, referring to any works or references requires what is called a parenthetical citation –  parenthetical, meaning in parenthesis, and citation, meaning a word or words taken from a piece of writing. Parenthetical citations are also referred to as “in-text” citations, as they are “in the text” of a paper, as opposed to the end (referred to as a Works Cited, Reference, Bibliography or Works Consulted, depending on the style guide you are following and assignment requirements).

MLA has general guidelines for what goes in parenthetical citations:

·         Information in parenthetical citations depends on the type of source you are citing, whether it is in print form, web form, film, DVD, etc.

·         Parenthetical citations must correspond to the Works Cited page (or Reference page in APA). This means that if a work is cited in the text by an author’s name, that author’s name must appear on the Works Cited page.

In MLA, parenthetical citations usually consist of either an author-page citation, or a page number citation.

Signal Phrases

If the author’s name is mentioned in a signal phrase (also referred to as an author or attributive tag), the parenthetical citation will include only the page number:

Ex. 1

Direct Quote: Herring states, “For the first time, I began to understand the courage and absolute vulnerability it took to put words on a page” (2).

Ex. 2

Paraphrase: In her research, Herring learned how high the emotional stakes are for writers (2).

In both examples above, the author, Herring, is given in the text, so the name will not be in the citation.

If the author’s name is NOT mentioned in a signal phrase, the parenthetical citation will include the author’s last name only and page number:

Direct Quote: The author understands it takes “courage and absolute vulnerability . . . to put words on a page” (Herring 2).

Paraphrase: The emotional stakes are high for writers who compose creative texts (Herring 2).

So the rule for in-text citations is, if the author’s name is given in a signal phrase, only give the page number. If it is not given in a signal phrase, the citation must include the last name only, followed by the page number.

What does this parenthetical citation tell us? We know who the author is, and we know on what page of the book we can find this quote. It doesn’t tell us, however, if it came from a print or web source. We assume it is a book, but only because there is a page number, but this isn’t always the case. We would look alphabetically on the Works Cited page, under “H” for Herring, to learn what type of source the research originated from.

Works Cited Entry:

Herring, Laraine. The Writing Warrior: Discovering the Courage to Free Your True Voice. Boston: Shambhala, 2010. Print.

Non-Print Web Sources

Today, web environments are often a respected source of information, and you may find some quality sources in online-only texts, though online sources must be carefully evaluated. Parenthetical citations for online sources can be tricky, but keep in mind you need basically the same information you would for a print source; however, it is rare that online sources will have page numbers. So what do you put in the parenthetical reference if the source has no page number?

·         First, include the author’s last name.

In-text:

The Purdue OWL is a great online source for students (Jackson).

Works Cited:

Jackson, Tom. “MLA Formatting and Style Guide.” The OWL at Purdue.

17 June 2012. Purdue University Writing Lab. 2 April 2014.

 

But what if there is no author given?

·         Include the title of the article. If the title is very long, you can shorten it.

In-text:
Once the boards are cut to specifications, glue sides to roof (“How to Build”).

Works Cited
:

“How to Build a Better Bird House.” eHow. Demand Media, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2005.

What should you NOT list in a parenthetical citation if you have no page numbers?

·         Non-existent page numbers!

Never create page numbers from the browser’s print preview. Only give page numbers if the actual numbers are shown on the text. A PDF file, even though you may open it online, most likely has page numbers. Only when a source has numbered paragraphs or sections, use “par.” (or “pars.”) or “sec.” (or “secs.”) in parentheses: (Smith par. 4). Never make up page, paragraph, or section numbers.

The preferred method to cite a source with no page numbers is to include the name of the author, editor, etc., in a signal phrase. Examples below edited from Purdue Owl:

Ex. 1:

No parenthetical citation:

Garcia stated that Fitzcarraldo is “…a beautiful and terrifying critique of obsession and colonialism.”

Works Cited Entry:

Garcia, Elizabeth. “Herzog: a Life.” Online Film Critics Corner. The Film School of New Hampshire, 2 May 2002. Web. 8 Jan. 2009.

Ex. 2:

No parenthetical citation:

In his article “Allston Gothic,” local historian Forman Jackson demonstrates how completely the neighborhood’s gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents.

Works Cited Entry:

Jackson, Forman. “Allston Gothic.” American Historian. 16 Aug. 2002. Web. 4 May 2009.

In both of these examples from web sources, no page numbers existed, so the author is given in a signal phrase, so no parenthetical citation is necessary. The name of the author corresponds with the Works Cited entry. If there is no author, list by the title; the same rule applies that it must correspond with the Works Cited entry.

No Author

If you have no author or page number to list in a parenthetical reference, you can give the title of the article, as shown below. But as stated earlier, the title in a signal phrase is preferred:

Ex. 1

Big foot is believed to reside in the Pacific Northwest and Canada (“Myths and Folklore”).

Ex. 2

Cable television has become more popular than network television (“Trends in Programming”).
This is only the basic formula for parenthetical citations. For more information, visit Purdue Owl Online Writing Lab at

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/

or Bedford St. Martin’s at

http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/res5e_ch08_s1-0001.html