Common Logical Fallacies in Argument Papers

(from Grammar Girl: Quick & Dirty Tricks)

5 Types of Fallacies You Don’t Realize You’re Using in Your Writing

 (By Lora Wegman, read by Mignon Fogarty)

The key to writing a strong argument is logic. Even writers who typically have sound logic, however, can fall into illogical conclusions when they are passionate about a topic and use unsound arguments—typically referred to as fallacies.

Here are a few tips for identifying the most common fallacies in writing and how to avoid them.


This fallacy, also called a “hasty generalization,” happens when the writer draws a conclusion about a group of people based on insufficient data. Often, these assumptions come from stereotypes and implicit biases, so these can sometimes be the trickiest fallacies to detect in your own writing. Perhaps you assume, for instance, that all members of a particular political party have the same stance on the death penalty, or you believe that all people who attend a certain school are wealthy. Basing an argument on unproven assumptions will ultimately make your position weaker and therefore easier to attack. As you’re reviewing your writing and come across an assumption, be sure to ask yourself, “Do I really know that this is true?”

Straw Man

A straw man argument oversimplifies an opponent’s position and then attacks it. This is often a big one for politicians, who might portray larger-picture views instead of nuance. For example, imagine that you are assigned to write an essay opposing school uniforms. If you state, “Requiring students to wear uniforms means they will lose all sense of individuality,” then you may be setting up a straw man argument. Instead of arguing for why students should be able to wear their own outfits, you instead take the argument to a simpler and perhaps more emotional conclusion, and then argue against that broader implication. When you’re listening to politicians, as yourself whether their argument is against what their opponents are actually suggesting, or have they thrown a straw man into the ring by misrepresenting their opponents’ position as something more extreme?

Ad Hominem

In ad hominem attacks, a position is attacked not through reasoning related to the argument itself, but instead by attacking the opponent’s personal character. For example, if Squiggly says we should have chocolate cake for dinner, and Aardvark responds by saying that  Squiggly is an idiot, he’s using an ad hominem attack—addressing only Squiggly’s character—and not making a logical argument about why chocolate cake for dinner is bad.

Closely related to the ad hominem attack is the tu quoque fallacy: This is when, instead of opposing an argument or a criticism, the speaker or writer responds by turning it back on the accuser. It’s essentially an argument that says, “Oh, yeah? What about you?” An example would be crafting an argument against doctors’ anti-smoking messages by pointing out statistics about how many doctors smoke. Those facts would have nothing to do with the anti-smoking argument itself but instead simply attack the behavior of those on the opposing side.

Post Hoc

A post hoc argument assumes one event caused another, based solely on the order of occurrence. The full Latin phrase—“post hoc, ergo propter hoc”—means “after this, therefore, because of this.” So, to use a historical example that was once believed to be fact: “People who spend time outside at night are more likely to catch malaria, therefore, night air causes malaria.” The fact that things happen in order doesn’t mean that one thing actually caused the next to happen. We now know that malaria is caused by a parasite transmitted by mosquitos, not by night air.

This is somewhat like the “slippery slope” fallacy. In these cases, you’re arguing against something with the assumption that it will lead to another undesirable outcome through a series of incremental steps. But in reality, the events may not actually be related if they do occur, or the first event might happen without the catastrophic result.

Red Herring

A red herring is a classic misdirection. We see this all the time in fiction, from Sherlock Holmes stories to modern-day thrillers. False clues are planted to throw the reader off. Similarly, a red herring fallacy can pop up in your writing when your argument veers into an area only tangentially related to the core topic. This may be purposeful, but it’s also easy to do without intending to. Here’s an example in which President Ronald Reagan used humor and diversion as a red herring in answering a debate question:

 Reporter: You already are the oldest president in history. … President Kennedy had to go for days on end with very little sleep during the Cuban missile crisis. Is there any doubt in your mind that you would be able to function in such circumstances?

Reagan: Not at all … and I want you to know that also I will not make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent’s youth and inexperience.

So, how do you catch yourself using fallacies? Play devil’s advocate with your own writing. Ask yourself what the logical counter-argument is and whether yours holds up. Then, identify any stereotypes or biases you are inadvertently using to inform your position. This should help you identify holes in your logic and set you up for a stronger result.


Final Check: Self-editing tips for your final draft



MLA Formatting

**MLA has recently made some changes to how things are formatted and cited. Make sure you know if you are to follow the old or new edition. The following are suggestions from the old edition, as most instructors will not change over mid-term.

Include 1” margins on all sides.

Double-space all lines (no extra spaces between header and title and title and text).

Center title. Do not bold, italicize, or enlarge font.

Single space after periods or other end punctuation.

Tab all indents; spacing 5 times is not the same!

Insert a paginated right header. This means to insert your last name only, followed by a space, then the page number. Your instructor may ask that you remove this from the first page, as you’ll have your left header here.

Works Cited should be numbered consecutively after the last page of essay.

Insert 4-line left header on first page only.

Block quotes should be indented one inch with no quotation marks.

All other direct quotes should have quotation marks and in-text citation, followed by period (note: period comes after the citation).


All outside research or sources should be followed with an in-text citation, whether they are a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary.

Direct quotes should have attributive or author tags.

If a source doesn’t have an author, give the title or website.

The in-text citation should match the FIRST WORD the source is listed under on the Works Cited page.

Avoid giving dictionary definitions of a word as an “outside source.” That’s not research.

Always use italics when referring to a book or website; use quotation marks for small works (article or short story) in a larger work (book or newspaper).

Works Cited


The title, Works Cited, should be centered at the top of the final page. Do not bold, italicize or enlarge font.

Works Cited should also be double spaced. NO EXTRA SPACES BETWEEN ENTRIES.

Works Cited should be alphabetized by author’s last name. If no author, alphabetize by the title or website. See Purdue Owl for other listings.

Each entry should have a hanging indent (the opposite of a regular line indent).

Include URL only if instructor requires it, or if the source cannot be found without it.

When using electronic sources, always include the date you accessed the source.

Other Tips

In Microsoft WORD, the default for paragraphs is set to insert an extra line space when you hit ENTER to move to a new paragraph. You must reset this to avoid triple-spacing the header, paragraphs, and Works Cited entries. To do this, go to the PARAGRAPH tab on the toolbar, clicking on the icon that has up and down arrows with five lines, just to the right of the 4 justification icons. Click the arrow on the right to open the tab, and scroll down to the bottom line that says “Add Space After Paragraph”; click this so that it says “Remove Space After Paragraph.” If you have already completed your essay and have triple spaces, highlight the entire text, follow these steps, and it should remove the extra lines.

The default font in Word is usually Calibri 11. MLA is Times New Roman 12, unless otherwise instructed. Make sure you have changed the font to follow MLA. 

This list is a very abbreviated editing checklist, and your instructor might have different directives, which we refer to as “instructor preference.” Always follow your instructor guidelines and ask for specifics if you are unsure of anything. 

This is only an abbreviated list of editing steps to take to make your essay a perfect as it can be. Hopefully, you’ve read your essay over carefully and had a peer read it as well. Don’t trust Spellcheck! Once you’ve done all you can do, turn it in and let it go. If you’ve followed your instructor’s guidelines and instruction and edited carefully, you should feel confident you’ve done your best work.






MLA Updates: What’s New

MLA has recently released the new 8th Edition of the MLA Handbook, which includes several updates. Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) explains the changes in the following article:

MLA Eighth Edition: What’s New and Different

[Contributors:Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Purdue OWL Staff]

In April 2016, MLA replaced its seventh edition resources with a new eighth edition. This updated version reflects the ways in which digital publication has changed how writers and researchers document sources. Therefore, the new edition includes significant shifts in the approach to source documentation in academic writing. While earlier editions emphasized the importance of following specific guidelines for formatting, the eighth edition focuses on the practice and process of scholarly documentation. The logic here is basic: a style guide should offer a method that is widely applicable. Rather than insisting that writers follow strict citation formulas, this handbook outlines the principles of MLA documentation and explains how writers can use them in many different situations.

For this reason, the new edition focuses on the writer’s strategy and individual decisions. Not all scholarly prose is the same, and every writer should evaluate her/his readers and determine how to best engage them. The writer’s goal should be to provide a document and list of sources that is easy for readers to use, so that the reading experience is informative and enjoyable.

Like earlier editions, this handbook includes information on evaluating sources, avoiding plagiarism, using quotations, constructing abbreviations, and other topics important to the scholarly writer. But what is different about the eighth edition is that it recommends a universal set of guidelines that writers can apply to any source, in any field. In the past, writers would create an entry in a works cited list by looking at MLA’s instructions for how to cite a specific type of source. For example, if you needed to cite a film, you would consult the handbook to see the proper format for documenting film. In this new edition, MLA explains that this method is no longer practical, since types of sources are sometimes undefinable, or accessible in more than one way (for instance, a YouTube clip from a film is not the same as the original film itself). Therefore, the eighth edition offers a new model for entries in a works cited list, so that rather than consulting the handbook for the proper way to document a specific type of source, the writer creates entries by consulting MLA’s list of core elements and compiling them in the recommended order.

Core elements are those basic pieces of information that should be common to all sources, from books to articles, from lectures to tweets. The MLA core elements are as follows:

Author Number
Title of source Publisher
Title of container Publication date
Other contributors Location

If you have included these elements and assembled them in a way that makes sense to your readers, then your works cited entries will be consistent and thorough.

Look for updates to OWLs resources and more detailed information about changes to MLA guidelines coming soon.


Since the eighth edition focuses on the principles of documenting sources, rather than on strict adherence to a particular format for each source, citations in this new edition vary only slightly from the old ways. When comparing works cited entries in the new eighth edition with the former seventh edition, see that differences in citation style are minimal; punctuation is streamlined, volume and issue numbers are identified as such, and there is no excess information such as city of publication or media type.

Note the differences in citing a print book with one author:

Eighth edition (the new way):

Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford UP, 2011.

In this version, only the most essential information is included (author’s name, book title, publisher, and date). Note that the city of publication is not needed, and the medium of publication is eliminated.

Seventh edition (the old way):

Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2011. Print.

This version includes the city of publication (Oxford) and the medium (print), which the new eighth edition does not require.

The differences in citing an article from a scholarly journal:

Eighth edition:

Kincaid, Jamaica. “In History.” Callaloo, vol. 24, no. 2, Spring 2001, pp. 620-26.

This version identifies the volume (24), the number (2), and the page numbers (620-26) of the scholarly journal, rather than leaving those numbers without clear explanation. This helps readers best make sense of your citation and allows them to locate your source without getting bogged down with extra information or references that can be difficult to decipher. Also note that punctuation is simple; only commas separate the journal title, volume, number, date, and page numbers.

Seventh edition:

Kinkaid, Jamaica. “In History.” Callaloo 24.2 (Spring 2001): 620-26. Web.

This version includes the volume and number (24.2), and page numbers (620-26) of the journal, but does not explain those references. The seventh edition emphasized following a strict punctuation formula, such as parentheses around the date and the colon, while the new eighth edition focuses on providing this information in a more streamlined manner by using only commas to separate each component.


If you are already familiar with traditional MLA citation methods, continue to use them in a more simplified form. Since the eighth edition emphasizes the writer’s freedom to create references based on the expectations of the audience, consider what your readers need to know if they want to find your source.

  • Think of MLA style principles as flexible guides, rather than rules. Part of your responsibility as a writer is to evaluate your readers and decide what your particular audience needs to know about your sources.
  • Your goal is to inform, persuade, and otherwise connect with your audience; error-free writing, along with trustworthy documentation, allows readers to focus on your ideas.
  • In-text citations should look consistent throughout your paper. The principles behind in-text citations have changed very little from the seventh to the eighth editions.
  • List of works cited/works consulted needs to include basic core information, such as author’s name, title of source, publication date, and other information, depending on the type of source. Each entry should be uniform and simple, but should give enough information so that your readers can locate your sources.
  • These updated MLA guidelines are based on a simple theory: once you know the basic principles of style and citation, you can apply that knowledge widely, and generate useful documentation for any type of publication, in any field.


For more information on MLA changes, visit

Best Websites for Grammar Help

For those of us who need to brush up on our grammar skills, some great websites exist that possess a ton of useful tips, examples, and even tutorials. Many of these websites are referenced here on our own blog. Check out the following article, “10 websites to help improve your grammar,” which can also be found at


10 websites to help improve your grammar

Grammar is an essential part of writing, as it helps to convey the message or idea you are trying to get across. That being said, most writers might agree that their grammar skills could use a little freshening up from time to time. Luckily there are various websites that exist strictly for the purpose of improving one’s grammar. The ProWritingAid blog is a great place to start, but we also recommend the following sites.

WritingForward – This blog, which was created by a passionate writer, offers tons of posts on creative writing, grammar, and more. It helps writers of all kinds get ideas flowing so they always perform their best. This site also has exercises that help you brush up on your grammar and writing skills.

GrammarBook – Looking for a great site that will help you improve your grammar? Look no further than this informative site, which offers free grammar rules, fun quizzes, and a blog with lots of tips on all things writing.

Grammarly – This innovative website acts as an automated proofreader and professional grammar coach. It checks your writing for spelling and grammar errors, as well as plagiarism, so you are always sure to create the best work possible. Writers of all kinds can definitely benefit from this site.

PurdueOnlineWritingLab – The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) is a helpful site that features over 200 free resources. Advance your knowledge in areas such as grammar and mechanics and learn about various writing styles. If you are interested in improving your grammar, this site can help.

GrammarBlog – If you are looking for a refreshing take on grammar, this site is perfect for you. It pokes fun of common grammar mistakes that people make every day, which can instantly put a smile on any writer’s face. Although this site doesn’t necessarily teach grammar, it does show you what not to do when you are writing.

LousyWriter – This cool site has tons of tips that will help you become a better writer. It features sections on grammar, writing styles, parts of speech, misused words, punctuation, capitalization, and more. You can also find blog posts, podcasts, and video tutorials that help you improve your grammar.

DailyGrammar – Anyone looking to brush up on their grammar skills should visit this site. It offers lots of simplified lessons and quizzes that make it easy to improve your grammar in many different ways.

ChicagoManualOfStyle – If you work with words, you may want to take some time to check out this helpful site. It features a forum where writers can correspond with one another and ask questions. You can also use several tools that help you proofread and polish your work.

GrammarGirl – Looking for an easy-to-use website that offers tips and tricks on all things writing? If so, you need to explore this site. It helps with grammar, word usage, punctuation, and more. In addition to all the helpful writing hints, there is also a free newsletter that you can subscribe to.

Dr.Grammar – This website, which was created by the University of Northern Iowa’s Department of Languages and Literature, is an excellent resource for writers looking to improve their grammar. With lots of frequently asked questions and helpful tips in many areas, you are sure to find some help on this site.

Improving your grammar is easy if you take the time to visit these sites. They all offer helpful ideas, tips, and tricks that are sure to make you a better writer in no time at all.

Getting & Giving Feedback: The Peer Review

Putting our writing in front of an immediate reading audience, even if it is our classmates, can be intimidating and stressful. We often get emotionally attached to our writing and it’s difficult to hear criticism, no matter how well-intentioned or constructive. Receiving feedback from our peers, however, is one of the most beneficial ways we can improve our writing. It’s not only valuable to receive feedback, but is also equally valuable to be able to read what our classmates are writing. The opportunity to review our classmates’ writing can offer us new possibilities for our own essays we hadn’t thought about before.

Peer Groups

Usually your instructor will create groups of 3-5 students to form a peer group, depending on the assignment and time allowed. Often, instructors will have a practice essay to demonstrate how they would like you to evaluate the writing. If not, they may give you some peer review questions to answer for the writers. As a group member, it’s your responsibility to offer helpful feedback with an eye towards revision. Often, participating fully, through both verbal and written feedback, is part of your class participation grade.

Reading Aloud

It’s peer workshop day, so now what? Depending on how your instructor organizes the groups, you’ll probably be asked to read your essay aloud. Why? Reading aloud is the only way to “hear” the language. You’ll catch more sentence-level problems by reading aloud, but you’ll also be better able to comprehend missing elements or catch nonsensical logic. Reading aloud also gives you the ability to see the reactions to your piece. Some writers prefer for a peer-group member to read their essay so they can hear it read by someone else, as often we’ve read our own pieces so many times we read things that may not be there. Either way, make sure to hear your essay aloud.

Margin Comments

As reviewer, when your peers’ essays are read, follow along closely and make margin notes. You might give a “!” for a passage that is really strong and works well, and a “?” for a passage that might need a bit more information or is confusing. Don’t stop to write too much as it’s being read, but keep following the reader. Wait until the reader has stopped to write more detailed feedback.

Written Comments

After hearing the essay read aloud and making margin notes, you’ll take a few minutes to write down more thoughtful comments. If your instructor provides you with specific questions to answer, you’ll offer thoughtful written comments towards those directives. One thing you’ll want to avoid is answering “It looks good to me.” This type of non-feedback is neither constructive nor helpful. The most common student complaint after peer review day is they received no constructive feedback, and were usually told it “looked good.” Remember that everyone will come to the group writing at different levels, but even if you feel the other students are better writers than you does not mean you can’t offer them a few suggestions towards their revision process. Even strong writers need to revise their work.  

Verbal Feedback

Once the group is done writing comments, you’ll now address the writer. Explain your written comments, offering praise for the parts that worked particularly well, and suggestions towards revision for areas that may need more information or explanation. Usually, the “gag rule” is imposed during this step, which means the writer listens to the feedback from their peers without responding, explaining or defending. The writing has to stand on its own without “Well, what I meant was. . .” from the writer. When the peer reviewers are done, the writer may then ask for clarification or further suggestions.

Getting What You Want Out of Your Peer Review

The peer review process is what it says: peer review.  Instructors usually stay out of this process and let the students lead the group how they see fit. This puts the responsibility of the peer review process – and outcome – on the students. If you are not satisfied with the feedback you have received, speak up. Ask for more. Make sure you leave with written comments, as you will forget verbal comments before you hit the door. If you have no directions from your instructor, direct your own feedback. If you feel you are particularly weak in organization or description, specifically ask your peers to focus on those areas you feel you need the most help with. Keep in mind, however, these are peer workshops, not editing groups. Don’t depend – or ask – your peers to fix your grammar and punctuation. That’s your job.


Peer workshops are a valuable tool as you work through the revision process. As a reviewer, always focus your comments towards revision – toward the next draft. It’s okay to praise or question what has already been written, but offer suggestions for the next draft. Think of it not as feedback, but feed-forward.

Write on!

The Art of Articles

An article is a word which is always used before a noun. In English, there are only three articles – a, an, and the. When you see an article, a noun will follow; however, the article may be followed by an adjective – such as “the tired dog,” or “the pretty girl.” The article-adjective-noun may also include an adverb, such as “the very tired dog,” or “the extremely pretty girl.”

Technically, an article is considered an adjective, as the article modifies the noun just as an adjective does. Articles are also referred to as “determiners” as they determine whether something is specific or nonspecific. Articles in English are either definite (specific), or indefinite (nonspecific).

THE = Definite Article

The is a definite article, which refers to something specific. For example, “Let’s go to the movie,” refers to a specific movie. If the sentence stated, “Let’s go to a movie,” it could mean any movie, or a nonspecific movie.

Other examples of definite articles:

I want to go to the party. (a specific party, not just any party)
Can a have the cookie? (a particular cookie, not just any cookie)
I want the coat on sale. (a particular sale coat)

Definite articles are also used before names of educational departments, buildings or institutions, such as

I want to go to the University of Nebraska.
He works in the Department of Gerontology.

Definite articles also precede bodies of water and mountain ranges:

I have heard the Great Lakes are beautiful.
Have you been to the Rocky Mountains?
I want to ski the Swiss Alps.

Other notes on definite articles

If you are referring to a country that is only one word, you would not use an article:

I am from Africa. (not the Africa)
I have visited France. (not the France)

You would use an article before the United States, but not America.

You would not use “the” for planets:

Incorrect: The Pluto is the smallest planet.
Correct: Pluto is the smallest planet.

Finally, omit “the” before cities, towns, states, continents, names of streets, languages, nationalities, sports (football), and academic subjects.

But DO use “the” before rivers, oceans, seas, specific points on the globe (the South Pole), geographical areas, deserts and forests.

A and An = Indefinite Articles

A or An are indefinite articles, which refers to a non-specific noun. For example, “Can I get a dog?” refers to any dog in general. In contrast, “Can I get the dog,” is referring to one specific dog.

The beginning letter and sound of a word will determine whether you’ll use A or An.
A singular noun beginning with a vowel will use “an”: an orange; an airplane; an opera. Also, an will precede a noun with a silent “h” such as hour. However, if the “h” is not silent, you would use the article a, such as a horse or a hobby.

A singular noun beginning with a consonant will use “a”; a car; a boy; a tornado. “A” is also used with a singular noun that has a consonant sound, such as university, which begins with a “y” sound, a consonant.

Other examples of indefinite articles:

I’d like to go to a university. (any university will do)
Can I have an apple? (any apple)
I want to see an octopus. (doesn’t matter which one)

We do not use an indefinite article with plural nouns and noncount nouns:

She was wearing red shoes. (shoes is a plural noun)
She has long brunette hair. (hair is a noncount noun)
I want to wear denim jeans to work Friday. (jeans is plural)
I have so much homework to do! (homework is noncount)


Now you try!

Fill in the blanks to the following sentences.

  1. There are ____ observers who believe that collecting is America’s fastest-growing hobby.
  2. According to Miller’s Fashion Doll, ­­­­­_____ popular magazine for doll collectors, dolls are second only to stamps as ­­­_____ most popular collectible in America, and Barbie is by far _____ most popular collector doll.
  3. While _____ people do make money selling the dolls, most simply have _____ large collection of Barbies and _____ interest in keeping her legacy alive.
(exercises from Bedford St. Martin Exercise Central)

For English Language Learners, visit these resources to learn about articles and for practice:




Don’t be Shifty! Avoid Shifts in Sentence Construction

(originally published May, 2014)

Shifts in sentence construction refer to an improper change in structure somewhere in a sentence which results in inconsistency. Some shifts are deliberate, but unintentional shifts can cause confusion. It’s sometimes difficult to identify these shifts. The most common shifts relate to shifts in verb tense, shifts in person or number, and shifts in voice.

Shift in Verb Tense

Shifts in verb tense are created when a sentence moves between past, present or future tense. This is especially common in narrative essays, but can also occur in academic essays, which should use present tense. Sometimes, the verbs in a sentence may refer to action that is occurring at different times, which would require different tenses. Otherwise, maintain consistent tense, unless the intended meaning requires change.

During the soccer game, Brett’s dad stood up and screams at the coach.

In this example, the first verb, “stood,” is past tense. The following verb, “screams,” is present tense. If he stood up (past tense) he must scream in the same tense, which would be “screamed.”

The teacher explains that the papers were due Friday, but the students complained about the due date.

The teacher “explains” in present tense, so the students should complain in present tense.

During the baseball game, the sky darkened, the wind blew up, and a rumbling boom announces the impending storm.

The time frame is introduced as past tense: “darkened” and “blew up” are both past, so “announces” should be the past as well.

ESL Hint: Don’t be fooled by the introductory words, “During the game.” Even though “during” means an action is continuous in general, it does not mean that the sentence action is necessarily continuous.

Shift in Person or Number

Is the subject of the sentence the person speaking (first person), the person spoken to (second person) or the person spoken about (third person)? Shifts in person mean mixing these “persons” within a sentence. Students often use second person “you” in academic writing when first or third person is preferred.

First Person = I, we
Second Person = You, your
Third Person = he, she, it, one, they

If one lifts weights consistently, you’ll gain muscle mass and reduce body fat.

One may get chicken pox if you do not get vaccinated.

This is one of the most common tense shifts in academic papers. “One” is third person; “you” is second person.

If someone must put dissect the frog, they should do it while closely supervised.

In the above example, “someone” is third person, singular; “They” is third person, plural. To repair, change either.

If someone must dissect the frog, he or she should do it while closely supervised.


If the class must dissect the frog, they should do it while closely supervised.

Clerks get paid less than assistants, though a clerk does the same type of work.

This is an error in number. “Clerks” is plural, and “a clerk” is singular. Choose one or the other.

A clerk gets paid less than an assistant, though a clerk does the same type of work.

Clerks get paid less than assistants, though they do the same type of work.

Shift in Voice

Shifts in voice refer to mixing active with passive voice. A sentence beginning in active voice should remain in active voice. If the subject acts on something, it’s active. If the subject is acted upon, it’s passive. However, sometimes a shift in voice is justified, though be careful it’s communicated clearly.

The visiting team won the tournament, and a trophy was awarded to them.

In this example, “team won” is active voice; “trophy was awarded” is passive. To correct, turn the passive second part of the sentence to active:

The visiting team won the tournament, and they were awarded a trophy.

The thieves approached the woman, and she was asked for her purse.

This example can be corrected in the same way as the previous:

The thieves approached the woman, and they asked her for her purse.

As you can see, it’s not always easy to locate shifts in tense, person, or voice. We often know something isn’t quite right, but you have a hard time figuring out what exactly it is.

CORRECTION: We often know something isn’t quite right, but WE have a hard time figuring it out!
I told you so!

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